{pantry 101} Guide to Using Oil

Much like vinegar, cooking oil is such a broad category it can be hard to know which oil to use. There are so many options to choose from – olive oil alone has seemingly endless varieties. Keeping a well-stocked pantry means including a few different types of oils, but how do you know which oil to buy and which to skip? It all depends on how you like to cook, and oils are not as easily interchanged as vinegar varieties are. Here’s a little primer on oil types:

Olive Oil Olive oil is probably the most confusing cooking oil. I could write a whole post just on olive oil!  There are hundreds of different varieties. Choosing an olive oil can be extremely complicated when one examines all the standards and characteristics that surround the oil-making process. Thankfully what is sold to the general public is broken down into just a few categories, most notably virgin, extra virgin, light, and pure.

Extra virgin is made from the first pressing of olive oil (where most of the “oil” is expressed out). It has a lower acidity level and is generally more “fruity” and bright tasting. Extra virgin is typically expeller pressed, which means the oil is squeezed from the olive by mechanical methods (ie – brute force!).

One grade below extra virgin is virgin, which is generally made from the second pressing of oil. It has a stronger taste than extra-virgin olive oil, but is still suitable for recipes and uses that require its first-pressing counterpart. Virgin olive oil is mostly expeller pressed, but not always.

Light olive oil (sometimes just referred to as “olive oil”) is from subsequent pressings. It is typically not expeller pressed; instead, the oil is extracted by the use of chemicals. It has a strong taste and is best used for applications where the flavor will be masked by cooking (it can withstand high temperatures without altering the taste of the oil, so it is good for high-high cooking).

Pure olive oil is comprised of oil from the last chemical pressing of olives (which results in a strong flavor and high acidity) and is blended with vegetable oil. I never use it. I would suggest using this oil is for frying only.

Where the olives are grown also affects flavor (much like wine). The most common locales for olive oil production are Spain, France, Italy, Greece, and California (Spain leads in production). Really the only way to know which oil you like best is to taste it. Many bulk food stores and specialty grocers will allow you to taste oils and decide which is best for you (0r try this – invite a few foodie friends over and ask each to purchase a small bottle of a different olive oil. You can all taste each oil and decide which you prefer!).

Extra virgin olive oil is wonderful in dressings, marinades, dips, and quick-sauté dishes. Lower grades are good for cooking, frying and for infusing. When you buy olive oil, try to stick to expeller (or cold) pressed options to avoid added chemicals.

Vegetable Oil The category of vegetable oil includes corn, canola, safflower, peanut, or a blend of these oils. When I bake or fry, I use vegetable oil (or as we call it in my house, Wesson Oil). It has a neutral flavor and a high smoke point (meaning it can be heated to a high temperature without burning/smoking). It’s also relatively cheap, depending on what kind you buy (blended is the cheapest). I also keep a bottle of safflower oil for making homemade mayonnaise because of its nearly-absent flavor. Vegetable oil can be used for dips, dressings, baking, frying, and cooking. Organic and non-GMO varieties are available though sometimes hard to come by.

Seed Oil This type of oil includes pumpkin, coconut, flax, grape, hemp, cottonseed, and sesame (I’ve even seed watermelon seed oil!). Sunflower oil is considered a seed oil OR a vegetable oil – I guess it depends on who you ask. Seed oils are commonly required in Asian stir-fry recipes or dressings. They have a low smoke point and burn easily, so they are best used in no-heat applications or as a “finishing touch” to highlight a particular flavor note in a recipe. Seed oils are also great for homemade skincare regimens and have high potencies of vitamins and nutrients. Buy seed oils in small quantities and keep in the refrigerator after opening, because like seeds, seed oils can turn rancid quickly.

Nut Oil Walnut, cashew, almond, etc., make up the nut oil category. They are delicate in usage but assertive in flavor. Because of their finicky character, they are not well suited for heat applications and are best used to finish a dish (like a drizzle of walnut oil over a bowl of risotto) or in dressings, dips, and marinades. They can be hard to find and pricey.

So, which oils should you keep in your pantry? I suggest keeping an extra virgin olive oil, virgin (or light) olive oil, and a vegetable oil. If you’d like to try something new, add a seed oil to the mix (two things to note here: Coconut oil comes in a semi-solid form, kind of like shortening. Also, look in stores like Marshalls or HomeGoods for specialty oils. I often can find the same brand-name seed oil for half the price I would pay at a specialty market). I rarely (if ever) have a need to a nut oil, so I wouldn’t consider it a pantry essential. Try to buy oils in a tin or colored glass container and store in a cool, dark place (heat and light can damage the flavor of most oils, especially olive oil). I purchase my olive and vegetable oils by the gallon, then transfer into smaller decanters or cruets for easy pouring.

What is your go-to oil? Do you have an oil that you found has changed the way you cook? I like to infuse olive oil with garlic, hot peppers, and herbs to create a tasty pasta topping or dip for bread. Do you also do that? Share your tips for buying and using oil!

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Categories: Kitchen Basics

Author:Deanna

Deanna N. Fox is a twentysomething entrepreneur and writer. She lives in Delanson, NY on an old farm and apple orchard with her four year old daughter Edith, and three year old son Eric (and a bunch of mangy animals). Deanna is dedicated to leading a stylish, sustainable lifestyle (while having fun!) and teaching others how to live similarly regardless of living situation via her blog Silly Goose Farm. Deanna was raised on similar principles amongst farms in Chenango County, NY, and believes that most of the world's problems can be solved by first ensuring everyone has access to good, wholesome food. When not hatching up new business ideas, renovating the farm or playing the in the dirt, Deanna can be found obsessing over boats, practicing for the World Bocce Championship with an adult libation in hand, or holding impromptu dance parties with her kids. More about Deanna can be found at www.deannafox.org.

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10 Comments on “{pantry 101} Guide to Using Oil”

  1. April 19, 2012 at 9:43 am #

    EVOO is my go to! We are so lucky to have an olive orchard nearby and I try to buy their products.

    • April 19, 2012 at 9:49 am #

      Aw man! You ARE lucky!

  2. April 19, 2012 at 10:24 am #

    I cook a lot with homemade ghee – my favorite high heat fat! also with olive oil – often times I’ll use a lesser quality to cook and then drizzle a finishing olive oil on the dish. I have a couple different types of finishing extra virgun olive oils as some are buttery, some fruity and some quite grassy or peppery. I also cook with coconut oil and sesame or peanut on occasion. I use walnut, hazelnut or this wonderful local butternut squash seed oil for finishing also. Since I do not eat meat, oils have become an important flavor ingredient for me.

    • April 19, 2012 at 10:59 am #

      Thanks for all the great info! I don’t think people understand the “stages” of cooking – like using oil to start a dish, then using a different oil to finish the dish. Same goes with salt. As far as ghee goes, you are right, it’s great! I’ll be doing a guide to “fats,” too, so stay tuned! Can you post a link to the butternut oil? That sounds bonkers! I want to try it :) Thanks for your super-informative and lovely comment!

  3. April 19, 2012 at 9:03 pm #

    I use olive oil (virgin or extra virgin), coconut oil or butter/ghee for almost all my oil needs. We used to use a fair amount of vegetable oil but I no longer use it due to learning more about the many health issues surrounding it. Coconut oil has so many amazing health benefits, we use quite a bit of it these days. Since it is saturated, it is much more stable than the other “seed oils” you have it listed with. :)

    • April 20, 2012 at 10:20 am #

      Hi Erin! As I mentioned, when I bake or fry I use vegetable oil, but I don’t fry very often, and I try to use butter as often as possible in baking. Coconut oil is something I’m getting more and more acquainted with. I’ve used it in my hair (as a mask – it works great for my thick, curly (aka frizzy) hair!) and am exploring other ways to use it. Thanks for your great comment!

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